By Susan T. Fiske, Daniel L. Schacter, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler

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Extra info for Annual Review of Psychology, vol 54 2003

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Sgm LaTeX2e(2002/01/18) P1: FHD BERRIDGE Figure 2 Adaptation of Figure 4 (panel B) in Koob & Le Moal (1997, p. 56), in which they depict sensitization as amplifying the hedonic a-process. They state that this panel shows an “affective stimulus in an individual with an intermittent history of drug use that may result in sensitized response. The shaded line illustrates . . the initial experience. The dotted line represents the sensitized response” (p. 56). Note that sensitization is hypothesized to increase the hedonic A-state by this view, which would be experienced as enhanced drug pleasure.

Small injection of their old drug prior to the test (called a priming injection). To activate the b-process rats received naltrexone, an opioid antagonist drug that blocks opioid receptors in the brain and can induce “precipitated withdrawal” symptoms in individuals who are heroin dependent. Precipitated withdrawal is clearly a B-state and thus would be expected by any withdrawal-based hypothesis of addiction to be the most powerful cause for reactivating drug-seeking behavior. sgm LaTeX2e(2002/01/18) P1: FHD Annu.

You probably have no overwhelming motivational urgency to tie your shoe, and you can stop brushing your teeth midway without distress at leaving the habit unfinished. You would not sacrifice your home, your job, your friends, and all that is dear in your life to engage in a shoe-tying habit, even though it is strongly learned and quite automatic. Its practiced automaticity does not compel you to perform it. No matter how strong implicit S-R associations, no matter how over-learned or pharmacologically boosted, there is no reason to believe that automatic S-R associations per se can confer compulsive qualities.

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