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This is often the full reference at the Borne back shell (bash). quantity 1Volume 2 comprises all appendices.
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Extra info for Advanced bash-scripting guide
Equals. Assignment operator 1 a=28 2 echo $a # 28 In a different context, the "=" is a string comparison operator. + Plus. Addition arithmetic operator. In a different context, the + is a Regular Expression operator. + Option. Option flag for a command or filter. Certain commands and builtins use the + to enable certain options and the - to disable them. In parameter substitution, the + prefixes an alternate value that a variable expands to. % modulo. Modulo (remainder of a division) arithmetic operation.
7) && "And-list", as above 8) tar xpvf Unarchive ('x'), preserve ownership and file permissions ('p'), and send verbose messages to stdout ('v'), reading data from stdin ('f' followed by '-'). Note that 'x' is a command, and 'p', 'v', 'f' are options. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 1 2 3 4 5 # # Whew! # More elegant than, but equivalent to: # cd source/directory # tar cf - . ]* /dest/directory # If there are hidden files in /source/directory. bz2 | tar xvf # --uncompress tar file-| --then pass it to "tar"-# If "tar" has not been patched to handle "bunzip2", #+ this needs to be done in two discrete steps, using a pipe.
This is undocumented (and probably non-portable) behavior, and should not be used in a script. See also Example 15-23. Notes  Technically, the name of a variable is called an lvalue, meaning that it appears on the left side of an assignment statment, as in VARIABLE=23. A variable's value is an rvalue, meaning that it appears on the right side of an assignment statement, as in VAR2=$VARIABLE. A variable's name is, in fact, a reference, a pointer to the memory location(s) where the actual data associated with that variable is kept.