By Jane H. Hill

In a single of the main thorough reports ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar reports the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse good points of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o shows many strange typological good points, together with break up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our figuring out of the improvement of the Uto-Aztecan kinfolk of languages in historic and areal point of view.

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Additional resources for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)

Sample text

E’licham ‘bad ones’ < elel’i-sh i’ingicham ‘lazy ones’ < ingi-sh (usually i’ingcham) ingkicham ‘the ones who are like’ < ingki-sh Kawikawicham ‘Luiseños’ < Kawika-wi-sh ‘south-person-NPN ’ kawicham ‘rocks’ < kawi-sh (usually not pluralized) kawisicham ‘foxes’ < kawi-si-sh met’icham ‘many’ < met’i-sh naxashwicham ‘old bucks, old men’ < naxash-wi-ch qeqilyam ‘king snakes’ < qeqi-ly pi’icham ‘pipes’ < pi’i-sh wichicham ‘four, plural’ < wichiw wishcham ‘two, plural’ < wih The pattern seen in (77) is not absolutely consistent.

As is evident from the table, Cupeño vowels exhibit a length contrast at all positions. There are only four vowel qualities in native vocabulary, with a contrast between front /i, ii/ and back /u, uu/ for high vowels and between low /a, aa/ and non-low /e, ee/ among non-high vowels. 2. The Cupeño Vowels Front High short High long Mid short Mid long Low short Low long i ii [i:] æ* ææ* [æ:] Central e [ë] ee [ë:] a aa [a:] Back u uu [u:] o* oo* [o:] Near-minimal pairs for length are shown in (31).

As coda: a’chimal ‘pretty, nice’ Glottal stop in word-initial position is not written in the practical orthography. 3). The affricate, orthographic ch, is the same as the fricative [S] but with a homorganic stop onset, [tS] in IPA notation, though this notation fails to capture the fact that the onset is homorganic with [S] (Golla 2005). (11) /ch/ as onset: chamish ‘chokecherry’, Chexemin ‘the Pleiades’, chinga ‘if’, chunal ‘sandbur’ The affricate [tS] alternates with [S] (orthographic sh), the former appearing only as syllable onset, the latter only as coda.

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